This q-value represents whehter or not the subtree (all the populations in gray) highlighted contains more genetic risk differentiation than expected under genetic drift (random fluctuations of alleles). This was done by using all other SNPs with an identical global allele frequency as the background distribution. Details will be described in an upcoming publication. The q-value is the multiple hypothesis analog of the p-value. Since each branch in the phylogeny tree is tested, q-values as opposed to p-values are reported. Genetic risk differencs between populations are still important whether or not q-values are significant. A significant q-value implies the environment has played a role causing a large genetic risk difference.